美国AKC边牧基本介绍
Border Collies areathletic, medium-sized herders standing 18 to 22 inches at the shoulder. Theoverall look is that of a muscular but nimble worker unspoiled by passing fads.Both the medium-length rough coat and the shorter smooth coat come in a widevariety of colors and patterns. The oval eyes are the focus of an intelligentexpression—an intense gaze, the Border Collie's famous “herding eye,” is abreed hallmark. In motion, they are among the canine kingdom’s most agile,balanced, and tireless citizens.
 
边境柯利犬是一种运动型的,体型中等的牧羊犬,肩高18至22英寸。整体看起来肌肉健壮而且敏捷, 并不因社会潮流而过时。中等毛长和短平毛的边牧都具有各种不同类型的颜色和斑纹样式。椭圆形的眼睛集中表现出智慧的表情——一种专注的凝视,边境柯利犬著名的“牧羊眼神”,是这个犬种的典型标志。在运动的时候,它们是犬类王园里最敏捷、最平衡、最不知疲倦的一群。
 
 
The exact originsof the domestic dog are locked in time and subject to speculation, but it isclear that after the development of dogs used by man to hunt, sheepdogs ofvarious kinds were created worldwide to protect the flocks. Since Biblicaltimes, flocks of goats, sheep, and cattle were the measure of individualwealth. Consequently, the development of a reliable dog to drive and protectthese flocks was a primary concern.
 
驯化狗的准确起源已经无从考究,但可以确定的是,自从人类使用犬来打猎以后,随着其不断发展,催生了世界范围内各种各样的牧羊犬,用以保护牧群。从圣经时代起,成群的山羊、绵羊、牛就成为了衡量个人财产的标准。于是,培养发展出一种可靠的犬,既能赶羊又能保护牧群,就成了首要考虑的重点问题。
 
 
Sheepdogs of allbreeds are noted for their sagacity, intelligence, and trainability. Ratherthan savage a flock as a wild dog would, sheepdogs willingly protect it. And itis this active ability of the dog to serve and respond to a master's biddingwhich clearly demarcates C. familiaris from any of the wild canids. These arethe traits of workability which were selected for in the development of thevarious sheepdog breeds.
 
各种牧羊犬以它们的判断理解能力、智力、可训练度而著称。与原始丛林那种野蛮地对待牧群的狗不同,牧羊犬更愿意去保护牧群,正是这一能力使它为主人服务,听从主人的命令,且与任何一只野犬都有着明显的区别。在各种牧羊犬的繁殖发展过程中,这些工作优点都是刻意选择保留下来的。
 
 
The craft oftending sheep was introduced to the British Islesby the Romans. Various Celtic clans soon created their own varieties ofsheepdogs to work these flocks. These dogs became associated with their regionsand were later known as Welsh Sheepdogs, Northern Sheepdogs, Highland Collies,Scotch Collies, and so on.
 
照料牧群的这个技能是由罗马人引入英国威尔士的。各种凯尔特人的族群不久培养创造出他们专属的牧羊犬来放牧。这些狗和他们的宗教信仰相关联且不久后被称为威尔士牧羊犬、北部牧羊犬、高地柯利犬、苏格兰柯利犬,等等。
 
 
While theantecedents of the Border Collie developed throughout the British Isles, its Scottish heritage is evident in the Scottish dialectword, "collie," used to describe these dogs. Thomas Bewick's woodengravings in The History of Quadrupeds, a pre-1800 work, resemble both thesmooth and rough varieties of today's breed.
 
当这些现代边境柯利犬的祖先在英国威尔士蓬勃发展时,它的英格兰遗传特性已经相当明显,于是人们用英格兰的方言“柯利”这个词来描述这种犬。Thomas Bewick在其所著的19世纪之前的作品《四足动物的历史》中,列出了和当今边牧很像的短毛和中毛型。
 
 
In 1860, classes for"Scotch Sheep Dogs" were offered at the Birmingham Dog Society thesecond dog show ever held in England.On a trip to Balmoral a short time later, Queen Victioria saw her first Collieand became an active enthusiast of the breed. It is at this point that thedivergence between our modern Collie and the traditional shepherd's dog began.However, today's Border Collie has remained a true working animal with verylittle change from the original type.
 
1860年,英国历史上第二次犬展,由伯明翰犬业协会授名“英格兰牧羊犬”。之后不久,英国维多利亚女王在去巴尔莫勒尔堡的旅行途中,看到了她的第一只边牧,并成为了这个犬种的狂热粉丝。那个时刻,标志着我们现代边牧与传统的牧羊犬开始分道扬镳。尽管如此,今天的边牧仍然保留了一只真正的工作犬的样式,和原始类型相比差别不大。
 
 
Credit is given toMr. R.J. Lloyd Price for the institution of sheepdogtrials. In 1876, he brought 100 wild Welsh sheep to the AlexandraPalace in London for a demonstration. Three sheep werepicked out of the flock, which had been guided to a remote corner of the park,and were carried to a far hill and released. 
 
牧羊犬比赛制度归功于R.J. Lloyd Price。1876年,他带了100只野生威尔士绵羊来到伦敦的Alexandra宫进行展示。三只从羊群中挑选出的绵羊被引至公园里的偏远的一角,再经过更远的山丘上释放。
 
 
The sheepdogs'responsibilities were to fold the sheep into a small pen in the middle of thepark. An account in the Live Stock Journal describedthe astonishment of the spectators at the intelligence of the dogs whose onlyassistance was in the form of hand signals and whistles from their masters. Itis this astonishing ability which serious Border Collie breeders wish to retainin the breed, above all else.
 
接下来,牧羊犬的职责是把羊聚拢至公园中心一个小小的围栏里。Live Stock Journal杂志的一个会计描述了观众对这些狗的惊讶程度,它们仅靠主人的手势信号和口哨指挥就完成了工作。这种惊人的能力正是那些严肃的边牧繁殖人最希望保留下来的犬种特性,优于其它所有特性。
 
 
Recognizedworldwide as the premier sheepherding dog, known for its obedience,trainability and natural appearance, the Border Collie was given Herding Groupdesignation and became eligible for full recognition status on October 1, 1995.
 
被认可为世界第一的牧羊犬,以其服从性、可训练度和自然的外形美著称,边牧被列入犬赛的牧羊组,并于1995年10月1日获得了全级别资格认可。
 
 
TRAINING&TEMPERAMENT 训练&脾性
 
They thrive whenthey have a job to do and space to run. Due to their tendency to herd objectsand people, they do best with mature, well-behaved children. They love theirfamilies, but may be somewhat reserved with strangers. While a well-trained andsocialized Border Collie makes a superb companion and working partner, this doesnot happen by accident. Some Border Collies can tend to be uncertain ornoise-sensitive when young. All dogs require proper socialization as they aregrowing up to gain confidence in a variety of settings to help them mature intocalm, well-behaved adults. All dogs should be trained to use a crate, as thisis the safest way to protect the dog and your belongings when the dog is homealone or unsupervised. Inside a crate is also the safest way to ride in a car.Puppy training classes provide a head start on the training and socializationprocess. In addition to classes, expose the puppy to different people, animals,sights, sounds, and experiences by taking him everywhere with you during hisentire puppyhood. This will result in an adult dog that can cope in a varietyof environments with assurance.
 
有一份工作、有足够的地方奔跑,边牧便会茁壮成长。由于它们具有放牧物体和人类的倾向,所以最好是与成熟的、举止有礼的孩子们一起玩。边牧热爱它的家人,但对陌生人则保持谨慎的态度。一只训练好的、具有足够社会化的边牧成为一只超级出色的伴侣犬或工作搭档绝不是偶然。有的边牧在小时候很不稳定或者对声音敏感。因此所有的狗都需要在成长过程中进行适当的社会化,以获得在各种场景下的自信心,帮助它们成熟成长为一只冷静、举止有礼的成年犬。所有的狗最应该训练习惯笼子,因为这是一种最安全的保护狗的方式,同时可以在狗独处或无人监管时保护家中物品免受毁坏。带狗乘车时,待在笼子里也是最安全的方法。在开始训练和社会化的课程中,小狗的训练最为重要。除了训练课程,还应让小狗接触不同的人、不同的动物、信号、声音,在它的整个童年中都有和你一起去各种地方的经验。这样才会成就一只能稳定地应对各种环境的成年犬。

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